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|TOLLS AND CUSTOMS|
|Subject:||Usages governing the collection of tolls at Torksey|
|Original source:||British Library, Rot.Cott. ii, 14|
|Transcription in:||N.S.B. Gras, The Early English Customs System, Cambridge (Mass.): Harvard University Press, 1918, 155-158.|
They say that thourthtoll and overthuerttoll belong to the lord of Torksey between the following places: from Hameldod, a place between Cleston and Neuton, as far as Surtherswath, which is between Kindardeferi and Boterwik; and in the following places: Hameldod, Neuton, Lagtherterton, Torksey on the east side of Holdhagh, Graunge, Marton, Lee, More, Stoketh, Kinardferi, Surtherswath, Scotermore, and between all these places. But now their [collection] is obstructed by the abbot of Wurgo St. Peter at Surswath and Scotermore, at Stoke by the men of Nottingham, and at Kinardferi by the Mowbrays. He ought to receive the following tolls:
And if the goods in the ship ought to pay toll, they should pay according to the following schedule:
If any ship is from any [aforementioned] liberty and someone who is not of that liberty has that use of the ship for the year for any payment or the fourth penny, then he who has the use of the ship should pay toll on it in the form already mentioned. If anyone from a liberty owns goods jointly with someone else who is not of a liberty, then toll ought to be paid on all the goods. And it is common knowledge that no goods or merchandize should be unloaded from a ship onto dry land until customs are assessed in the presence of the bailiff, regardless of whether it ought to pay toll or not, and until the bailiff has examined them. Similarly, no goods brought by land are to be transferred to water or loaded into a ship until customs are assessed in the presence of the bailiff. If anyone brings any ship to Torksey and unloads goods and the goods are of the liberty, the ship must pay its toll. If the ship takes on new freight to be taken out [of Torksey], again it must pay toll if the goods are of the liberty.
They say that no merchandize nor any goods coming north by water from Newark are to be put ashore before they reach Torksey. Also, that no goods nor merchandize coming south from Gainsborough are to be put ashore before they reach Torksey. If they [i.e. the ships' masters] do so, the bailiff of Torksey has power in the matter to seize the goods and merchandize that were in the ship, as if an attempt had been made to evade paying toll, and to keep them until they make amends to the bailiff and the lord for that transgression. Goods such as lead and timber are not to be put ashore except in certain [predetermined?] places. Lead is to be laid out in a row, and timber placed in a heap, without [causing] any other blockage. If they are unwilling to do this, the bailiff should undertake it and recover his costs from the goods.
Toll taken by land:
Torksey, Lincolnshire, is situated at the River Trent's junction with the Fossdyke, a Roman cut connecting the Witham (which ran through Lincoln) with the Trent, which itself came northwards from the future site of Nottingham and continued flowing north into the Humber. Regardless of the Roman reasons for creating England's first canal, the Fossdyke was a boon to inland transportation and trade. A settlement was established there in consequence and was important enough to be used in 873 as the base for a Danish army doubtless because of its location on waterways that facilitated forays by invading forces. By the tenth century it had become one of England's major pottery-making centres, with Torksey ware being sold across the country. It was considered a borough, if a small one, by the time of Domesday. It appears to have had a close relationship with Lincoln, ten miles southeast of Torksey being described on one occasion as a "suburb" of Lincoln; the Fossdyke allowed Lincoln's trade an alternative route to that via the Witham entering the North Sea at the site of Lincoln's competitor, Boston.
The canal, however, was not maintained well and periodically became so badly silted as to be unusable; in 1121 the Bishop of Lincoln had it scoured to restore its navigability. By the beginning of the fourteenth century the canal appears was becoming impassable again (although perhaps only during the dry period of each year, when its water-level fell), for goods sometimes had to be carted by road between Torksey and Lincoln; the scouring process was repeated in 1335. The Trent, however, was and remained an important inland transportation route between the Midlands and the North of England.
The adverse effects of the Conquest and its aftermath was another contributor to Torksey's fluctuations in fortune: the burgess population dropped by over 50%. Torksey was unable to maintain its early importance into the late Middle Ages.
This document takes the form of an inquisition into what tolls might rightly be taken along a stretch of the Trent by the lord of Torksey, and how the taking of tolls was to be administered. One of the principal features of interest is that the document explicitly deals with some issues that most lists of tolls take for granted, such as the circumstances governing exemptions. The document reflects not only a network of toll-stations along inland waterways, but also the growing number of urban exemptions from such tolls (Nottingham, for example, had its exemption investigated and confirmed by Torksey authorities in 1342), as well as personal exemptions on goods that were not for commercial use (i.e. re-sale) but for personal or household use. At the same time, there was the attempt to restrict loading and unloading of cargos to certain locations where, and situations under which, toll collection could be effectively administered.
"thourthtoll and overthuerttoll"
"clove of teasels"
|Created: August 18, 2001. Last update: December 22, 2002||© Stephen Alsford, 2001-2003|