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The Men Behind the Masque:
Office-holding in East Anglian boroughs, 1272-1460
1 Although this is too simplistic an explanation in itself
for the timing of reform/revolutionary movements.
2 Quoted in a review of B. Hanawalt's Crime and Conflict
in English Communities, 1300-1348, in Journal of Economic
History, XL (1980), 383.
3 Although this advantage may well have been appreciated
long before the initiation of the early Chancery proceedings provides
detailed documentation of it.
4 Dobson, "Urban decline in late medieval England," 13.
5 An unusually clear statement of this philosophy was
issued in Coventry in 1494; for which see Phythian-Adams, Desolation
of a City, 137.
6 H. Riley, ed., Munimenta Gildhallae Londoniensis:
Liber Custumarum, (London, 1860), 518-21.
7 As did Hammer, op.cit., 25, regarding Oxford.
8 Thus Aquinas: "si unus homo habuisset super alium
supereminentiam scientiae, et justitiae, inconveniens fuisset nisi
hoc exequeretur in utilitatem aliorum" (from extracts in Carlyle's
History of Medieval Political Theory in the West, V, 12).
Dante offered the term optimacy as an alternative to aristocracy.
9 From extracts in J. Mundy and P. Riesenberg, The Medieval
Town, (Princeton, 1958), 123. This notion is found in the
10 See her comments in English Medieval Towns, 136.
11 Coroners, councils, and financial officers all played
a part in this.
12 Carlyle, op.cit., VI, 523.
13 We need not look to the spurious lex regia or
the Aristotelian revival for the foundations of medieval democracy,
despite some possible influence on the Italian communal movement.
Similarly, whilst trained lawyer John Tilney may have been familiar
with the populist theory of Bartolus of Sassoferrato, it is futile
and unnecessary to speculate on how this may have influenced the
reform movement in early fifteenth century Lynn.
14 E.g. Lynn's Great Jury for pleas of land, and Maldon's
15 Deposition of individual members remained theoretically
possible, although this now lay largely with the executive; but
removal of councillors en masse could not have been achieved
16 Reynolds, English Medieval Towns, 160-61; R.
Gottfried, "Bury St. Edmunds and the population of late medieval
English towns, 1270-1530," Journal of British Studies, XX
17 On this see particularly Phythian-Adams, "Ceremony
and the citizen," passim, and Phythian-Adams, Desolation of a
18 Tait, op.cit., 284; Phythian-Adams, Desolation
of a City, 183.
19 From a poem by Henry VI, the full text of which is printed
in J. Harvey, The Plantagenets, (London, 1959), 228.