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Religion/The Military Orders

Teutonic Knights

This table contains dates and events that highlight the origins and development of the Teutonic Knights throughout its history; also included are significant events in medieval history that may not be directly associated with the Teutonic Knights but give perspective to the history of the order. Please note that this table is still under construction. If your browser does not support tables, choose this text-only version.

1070 Possible founding date of the Hospital of St. John in Jerusalem by Amalfi merchants
1098 Crusaders of First Crusade captured Jerusalem
1113 Hospital of St. John recognized by papal bull as separate order
1118 Hugh of Payens of Burgundy and Godfrey of Saint Adhemar, a Fleming, with seven other knights were credited with founding the Templars whose headquarters was on or near the Temple Mount in Jerusalem
1126 Hospital of St. John displayed possible military attributes; its "constable" was cited in sources
1127 Possible date of the founding of the German Hospital of St. Mary in Jerusalem
1128 Probable circulation of St. Bernard of Clairvaux' Liber ad milites templi de laude novae militiae
Jan., 1129 Council of Troyes recognized the Temple as an order
1131 King Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre attempted to turn over the kingdom to the Templars, Hospitallers, and Knights of the Holy Sepulcher in his will
1143 Two sources of Pope Celestine II mention a German hospital in Jerusalem in some kind of dispute with the Hospital of St. John; the German hospital was put under the supervision of the Hospital of St. John
1147-1149 Second Crusade
1160's or
John of Würzburg mentioned the German hospital in Jerusalem in his Description of the Holy Land
1172 German monk Theodorich wrote Guide to the Holy Land
1176 Sophia, Countess of Holland, was buried in the German hospital in Jerusalem
May 1, 1187 Hospitallers and Templars defeated by the Muslims at Nazareth
July 4, 1187 Battle of Hattin lost by crusaders; Hospitallers, Templars, and the "flower of the nobility" devastated
Oct. 4, 1187 Jerusalem surrendered to Saladin
1190 Third Crusade featured the German Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, King Richard I of England, and King Philip II of France; the crusaders lay siege to Acre; Germans from L(beck and Bremen probably established a field hospital named after the previous German hospital of St. Mary in Jerusalem
Sep., 1190 King Guy of Jerusalem awarded Teutonic Order or "Teutonic Knights" a portion of a tower in Acre; the bequest was re-enforced on Feb. 10, 1192; the order perhaps shared the tower with the English Order of the Hospital of St. Thomas
Feb. 6, 1191 Questionable bull of Pope Clement III approving the German hospitaller order at Acre
Jul. 12, 1191 Siege of Acre ended in crusader victory
Apr., 1195 Count Palatinate Henry of Champagne provided Teutonic Knights the house of Theodore of Sarepta in Tyre
Mar., 1196 Count Palatinate Henry conferred possessions in Jaffa (Joppa) on Teutonic Knights
Dec. 21, 1196 Pope Celestine III took the "Hospital of St. Mary of the Germans in Jerusalem" under his protection
1196 Hermann von Salza may have accompanied Landgraf Hermann von Thüringen to the Holy Land
May 20, 1197 German emperor Henry VI gave the Teutonic Knights a hospital in Barletta, Italy
Jul. 18, 1197 Henry VI gave Teutonic Knights a church and cloister (of the Holy Trinity) in Palermo, Sicily
Mar. 5, 1198 Teutonic Knights established as a military order in a ceremony in Acre's Temple which was attended by the secular and clerical leaders of the Latin Kingdom
1198 First military action of the Teutonic Knights with King Amalric II of Jerusalem; Amalric gave them (in August) a tower in Acre, formerly belonging to the Order of St. Nicholas
Feb. 19, 1199 Bull of Pope Innocent III confirmed the Teutonic Knights' wearing of the Templars' white mantle and following of the Hospitallers' rule
Aug., 1200 Teutonic Knights paid the sons of Theodore of Sarepta 200 besants for the house in Tyre to complete the 1195 deal
1202 Gerold of Bozen gave the Teutonic Knights a hospital in Bozen
1202 - 1204 Crusading effort led by Boniface of Montferrat diverted from Palestine or Egypt to Constantinople with influence of Venetians and pretender to the Byzantine throne
Apr., 1204 Fall of Constantinople to the Latin crusaders
Early, 1205 William of Champlitte and Geoffrey of Villehardouin conquered Patras, Andravida, Pundico Castro, Modon, and Coron in the Morea; Battle of Koundoura won by William of Champlitte and Geoffrey of Villehardouin with about 600 men over 5,000 Byzantine Greeks
1206 Statutes of Margat adopted by the Hospitallers in annual chapter meeting
1207 Famous singing contest held at the Wartburg; St. Elizabeth of Hungary and Hermann von Salza possibly attended
1208 Teutonic Knights "marshal" appears in the sources; indicates the military nature of the order
1208 - 1229 Albigensian Crusade in France
early, 1209 Geoffrey Villehardouin, Prince of Achaia, in dividing up the Peloponnesus in his capital of Andravida, gave the Templars, Hospitallers, and Teutonic Knights four knightly fees; the Teutonic Knights' fee is near Kalamata
1209 Teutonic Knights side with Hospitallers and barons in Acre against the Templars and prelates; origin of long-standing opposition between the Templars and Teutonic Knights
Oct. 3, 1210 Probable date of election of Hermann von Salza as grand master of the Teutonic Knights; the date coincided with the date of the marriage in Tyre of John of Brienne to Mary; it was also the date of John's coronation as King of Jerusalem
Sep., 1211 Frederick II chosen king in Germany
1211 Burzenland settled by the Teutonic Knights with the authority of Hungary's King Andrew II
Jul., 1212 Peter II of Aragon defeats the Moors at Las Navas de Tolosa
1212 Adomadana given to the Teutonic Knights by King Leo of Armenia
1212 Children's Crusade: spring---German phase; June--- French phase
Sep. 12, 1213 Simon of Montfort wins the battle of Muret; Peter II killed
Feb. 24, 1214 King Leo of Armenia granted Teutonic Knights Amudain, the castle of Sespin, and more
Nov., 1215 Innocent III called the Fourth Lateran Council; new crusade proclaimed; Hermann von Salza probably at the Fourth Lateran Council representing his order
1215 Frederick II crowned in Aix-la-Chapelle; took the cross
1215 Magna Carta signed in England
1215 Dominican Order founded
Feb. 18, 1216 Innocent III issued a bull of protection for the Teutonic Knights
Dec., 1216 Hermann von Salza attended Frederick II's court in Nuremberg; first meeting between the Teutonic Knights' grand master and the emperor
Feb., 1217 Hermann von Salza received possessions in Sicily from Frederick II while at Ulm
Jun.24, 1217 Frederick II granted the Teutonic Knights the same status as the Templars and Hospitallers in the Kingdom of Sicily
1217ó1221 Fifth Crusade
May - Aug. 1218 Crusading army lands in Egypt; Hermann von Salza at Damietta; Saphadin died (1199ó1218); al-Kamil, his son, became caliph (1218- 1238); crusaders captured Damietta
1218 - 1219 Patriarch of Jerusalem, church officials, Templars and Hospitallers advised Pelagius not to accept peace terms of Sultan al-Kamil to surrender Jerusalem; contrary advice offered by King John of Jerusalem, Earl Ranulf of Chester, and the German leaders
Spring, 1220 Hermann von Salza went to Acre with King John of Jerusalem
Nov., 1220 Hermann von Salza was with Frederick II in Italy; first identified by name as Hermann von Salza in documents; Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Honorius III
1220 Leopold VI of Austria presented the Teutonic Knights the site of the castle of Montfort near Acre
Jan. 9, 1221 Honorius III gave privileges to the Teutonic Knights; as an order, they now were on the same level as the Templars and the Hospitallers
Jan - Apr, 1221 Hermann von Salza was in Italy; 57 privileges were given by Honorius III to the Teutonic Knights (Honorius III granted 113 to the Teutonic Knights during his pontificate)
mid-April, 1221 Hermann von Salza accompanied the duke of Bavaria and other German nobles to Damietta; arrived in May
Aug. 30, 1221 Battle of Mansurah; crusaders surrendered in Egypt (Templars led the rearguard action); peace treaty; Hermann von Salza and the master of the Temple held as hostages by the Muslims
1222 "Golden Bull" of Hungary, first issue
1223 Hermann von Salza negotiated with the pope over Gunzelin; later in the Holy Land, he arranged the marriage for the emperor (?)
1224 Hermann von Salza was involved in the Treaty of Dannenberg
Nov., 1225 Frederick II married Isabella (Yolande) of Brienne and claimed the throne of Jerusalem; Hermann von Salza was present
1225 Teutonic Knights forcibly expelled from Burzenland by king Andrew II; Conrad of Masovia requested aid from the Teutonic Knights in Prussia
1226 "Golden Bull of Rimini" from Frederick II for the Teutonic Knights giving them wide-ranging authority in the name of the empire in Prussia
1227 Montfort rebuilt---renamed Starkenberg
Sep., 1228 Frederick II arrived in the Holy Land accompanied by Hermann von Salza
Feb. 18, 1228 Frederick II took control of Jerusalem from the Egyptian Sultan al-Kamil by treaty; Hermann von Salza with Frederick
Mar. 12, 1228 Hermann von Salza sent a letter to Gregory IX from Joppa informing him about the treaty
Mar. 18, 1228 Frederick II crowned King of Jerusalem in the church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem; then held high court in the house of the Hospital of St. John
Apr., 1229 Peace of Paris ended Albigensian Crusade
Apr., 1229 Frederick II gave Teutonic Knights former house of Germans in Jerusalem; also a house that once belonged to King Baldwin located in the Armenian street near the church of St. Thomas (plus a garden and six acres of land)
May 1, 1229 At odds with the Templars and Ibelins, Frederick II departed Acre; feared losing Apulia to John of Brienne
1229-1244 German Hospital of St. Mary in Jerusalem expanded
1230 Kulm recognized by Pope Gregory IX as belonging to the Teutonic Knights
1231 Teutonic Knights' Hermann Balke advanced into Prussia
1231 Gautier of Brienne gave the Teutonic Knights Beauvoir
1231 St. Elizabeth of Hungary died at Marburg; later was canonized (1234)
1234 Teutonic Knights won the battle at Sirguna, Prussia
1234 Pope took control of Prussia; leased it to the Teutonic Knights
Spring, 1235 Dobriner Order incorporated into Teutonic Knights; approved by Frederick II and Gregory IX
Sept., 1235 Andrew II of Hungary died; Bela IV succeeded him (until 1270)
Dec. 23, 1236 Gregory IX taxed the Peloponnesus to support crusading ventures; preceptor of the Teutonic Knights identified in the Morea as one of three collectors of the tithing effort
1237 Frederick II's second Lombard campaign; Hermann von Salza at Battle of Cortenuova
1237 Teutonic Knights and Swordbrothers unite
Jul., 1237 Geoffrey II of Achaia gave the Teutonic Knights a hospital in Andravida
1238 Frederick II's third Lombard campaign; Hermann von Salza's health failed
Mar., 1239 Hermann von Salza died in Salerno and buried in Barletta; Frederick II excommunicated
Mar., 1239 Robert de l'Isle donates property (Villegrot) near Veligosti to the Teutonic Knights
Apr. 9, 1241 Battle of Liegnitz; Mongols defeat army of Poles and Germans including Hospitallers, Templars, and Teutonic Knights
Apr. 5, 1242 Russians under Alexander Nevsky defeat the Teutonic Knights on Lake Peipus
1244 Muslims recapture Jerusalem
Oct. 31, 1246 Innocent IV transferred the Hospital of St. James to the Templars
1257 Julian of Grenier, lord of Sidon, donated a fortress called Cave of Tyron to the Teutonic Knights (about 12 miles east of Sidon) signifying the order's role in Holy Land was expanding
1257ó1261 Teutonic Knights bought large land complex (called Souf or Schuf) northeast of Sidon from Julian Grenier, lord of Sidon for 23,000 crusader besants
Oct. 16, 1258 Peace treaty among the Templars, Hospitallers, and Teutonic Knights signed in Acre
1258 Teutonic Knights buy a manor from John de la Tour, constable of Sidon, and two manors from John of Schuf and assumed the responsibility for defense north of Acre
Jul., 1260 Teutonic Knights routed at Durben; Prussians revolted
1261 Teutonic Knights bought fief made up of several manors called Schuf from Andrew of Schufe
May, 1263 All Teutonic Knight possessions near Sidon lost to Muslims after Baybars won battle of Sidon
1290 Teutonic Knights complete a 30óyear effort to control Prussians
May 18, 1291 Fall of Acre; Hospitaller and Templar headquarters moved from Acre to Cyprus; Teutonic Knights headquarters moved from Acre to Venice
1306 Hospitallers began conquest of Rhodes
Nov. 28, 1309 Trial of Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of the Templars (in Paris)
1309 Hospitallers' headquarters moved from Cyprus to Rhodes
1309 Teutonic Knights' headquarters moved from Venice to Prussia
May 16, 1312 Hospitallers awarded Templars' estates throughout western Europe, Cyprus, and Greece
Mar. 15, 1314 Jacques de Molay, Templar grand master, and Preceptor of Normandy burned at the stake in Paris
Sep. 9, 1320 Teutonic Knight commander in the Morea died in battle against the Greeks near the fortress of St. George
1348 Plague devastated the Byzantine Empire
1376 - 1381 Hospitallers leased the Principality of Achaia from Joanna of Naples for 4,000 ducats per year
1383 or 1384 Strife between Hospitallers and the Teutonic Knights in the Peloponnesus
1387 Rudolf Schoppe, preceptor of the Teutonic Knights in the Morea, became the field deputy of Pedro Bordo de San Superan
1391 List of Moreote fiefs included the Hospital of St. John and the Teutonic Knights
1401 Jacob of Arkel, preceptor of the Teutonic Knights in the Morea, rewarded with vineyards at Modon and Coron by the Venetians
1402 Source identified a number of Teutonic Knight monasteries in the Morea including St. Steven in Andravida
1410 Teutonic Knights defeated at Tannenberg; bankrupted
May 21, 1433 Teutonic Knight procurator John Nichlausdorf in Rome reported he protested to the Byzantine representative the loss of properties in the Morea
Apr. 27, 1435 Teutonic Knights' representative at the Council of Basel asked the return of possessions in the Morea from the Byzantines
1435ó1437 Johann Franke attempted to purchase Mostenitsa
1500 Turks conquered Modon from the Venetians and expelled the Teutonic Knights from the Peloponnesus

Copyright (C) 1996, Eric Opsahl. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

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