(1) FF.i. 91. No.309; Maitland F.W., Domesday Book and Beyond (London, 1961) pp. 55-556 (first published, Cambridge, 1897)

(2) Crepping, Pratellis, Rochford and Tany R.

(3) Duby G., 'The Nobility in Eleventh and Twelfth Century Maconnais", extract from La Societe aux Xieme et XIIieme siecles dans la region Maconnaise (Paris, 1953) in Cheyette F.L. Lordship and Community in Medieval Europe (New York, 1968) pp.150.

(4) Du Boulay F.R.H.., The Lordship of Canterbury (*****,) pp.206; Hilton R.H. The Economic Development of some Leicestershire Estates (Oxford, 1947). Pp. 4-11. For a general discussion of the size of knights' fees see Harvey S. 'The Knight and the Knight's Fee in England' Past and Present 49. (1970). ***

(5) Miller E., The Abbey and Bishopric of Ely (Cambridge, 1951) pp. 183, 89.

(6) Raftis J.A., The Estates of Ramsey Abbey; a study of economic growth and organisation, (Toronto, 1957), Hatcher J., Rural Economy and Society in the Duchy of Cornwall, 1300-1500 , (Cambridge, 1970), see also King E.J. Peterborough Abbey, 1086-1310: a study in the land market (Cambridge, 1973).

(7) I.P.M. PRO C.133.107. no 26; C133.5.no 8.

(8) see for example; I.P.M. PRO C.134.47. no16; C.133.83.no 10; C.134.35.no 18; C.133.5.no. 3; C.134.14. no 26; C.132.39.no 17; C.135.67. No 10; C.133.93.no 10; C.134.32.no 18; C.133.48.no 3; C.135.72.no 24.

(9) I.P.M. PRO c.133.5.no 8.

(10) I.P.M PRO c.133.117.no15.

(11) Raftis J.A., op cit., p.118

(12) Titow J.Z., English Rural Society 1200 - 1350 (London, 1969) pp. 145-6, 165.

(13) PRO I.P.M.s 1270, c.132.39.no 17; 1296, c.133.74.no 14; 1301, c.133.100.no 5; 1320, c.134.59.no 3.

(14) Raftis had noted similar expansion of demense meadow on the estates of Ramsey Abbey op.cit p.156.

(15) The procedure for extending manors is set out in Fleta Book II. Clause 71. Selden Society, lxxii (1953). P239.

(16) PRO I.P.M. C.133.117.no 15.

(17) Feet of Fines ii. p. 96 no. 721.

(18) Feet of Fines. ii. p. 79 no. 576.

(19) Feet of Fines . ii. p. 280 no.1673.

(20) Feet of Fines. ii. p. 134 no. 185; p.124 no. 93; p.28 no. 152; p.16 no. 61.

(21) Feet of Fines . ii. p. 111 no. 867

(22) PRO I.P.M. C.134.47 no. 16

(23) PRO I.P.M. C.132.23 no. 2.

(24) PRO I.P.M. C.134.34 no. 18.

(25) PRO I.P.M. C.132.24 no 11 and c.134.55 no 1.

(26) PRO I.P.M. C.133.83 no 10.

(27) PRO I.P.M. C.133.47 no 4.

(28) Rotuli Hundredorum I, pp 415, 428.

(29) PRO I.P.M. C.134.21 no 7.

(30) PRO I.P.M. C.133.107 no. 26.

(31) PRO I.P.M. C.134.93 no. 17.

(32) PRO I.P.M. C.132.44 no3.

(33) C.I.P.M. ii. no 68; PRO I.P.M. C133.5 no. 8; Feudal Aids. ii. p. 137.

(34) PRO I.P.M. c.135.12. no. 16.

(35) from 260 to 646 acres of arable and from 11 17s to 22 13s in value. PRO I.P.M. C.132.39 no. 17 and c.133.74 no.14.

(36) see below p. 110 ????

(37) PRO I.P.M. C.133.117 no.15.

(38) PRO I.P.M. C.133.93 no. 10.

(39) PRO I.P.M. C.133.48 no 3.

(40) Britnell R.H., 'Production for the Market on a small Fourteenth Century Estate', Economic History Review., 2nd Series, xix (1966).

(41) PRO Herts Lay Subsidy Rolls E.179/120/2/m31/1; E.179/120/5/m13/2.

(42) PRO Herts Lay Subsidy Rolls E.179/120/8/m29/2.

(43) Britnell R.H., 'Production for the Market on a small Fourteenth Century Estate', Economic History Review., 2nd Series, xix (1966). Bradenham had, however, taken steps to augment his income from rents.

(44) Miller E. The Abbey and Bishopric of Ely (Cambridge, 1951) pp. 130-1; see also Hyams P.R. 'The Origins of the Peasant Land Market', Economic History Review 2nd ser., xxiii (1970).

(45) Unless otherwise states all references in this section are to be found under Transactions in Land in Appendix A.

(46) C.I.P.M. iv., no 288. There was a Coggeshall Hall in Little Benfleet up to 1575, Reaney P.H. Place Names, p.143.

(47) Feet of Fines i.p.250 no. 1488; Eustace, brother of Ralph, son of Laurence de Coggeshall is mentione din an assize taken in 1253, PRO Justices Itinerant 1. No. 234 m.17d. There were other Coggeshalls holding at Rivenhall, see Appendix A.

(48) Feet of Fines i. p. 280 no. 1673; ibid ii. p.30 no. 159.

(49) Feet of Fines ii. p.96 no. 721.

(50) Feet of Fines i. p.270 no. 1611.

(51) Feet of Fines i. p.40 no 234A

(52) Feet of Fines i. p.79 no. 576.

(53) Feet of Fines ii. p.88 no. 666.

(54) Feet of Fines ii. p.59 no. 388.

(55) Feudal Aids ii. p.133.

(56) Feet of Fines ii. p.81 no598.

(57) C.I.P.M. vi. No. 288.

(58) On the later history of the family see Beaumont G.F., 'The Coggeshall Family', The East Anglian, new series i. & v. (1885-6, 1903-4)

(59) Sander I.J. , English Baronies, p.144. William died in 1287, crushed by a castle wall during the rising of Rees ap Meredith. Annales Monastici, iii. P.338

(60) C.P.R. 1288, pp 292, 334; CFR i, p.245; C.C.R. 1289, p.46.

(61) PRO, Justices Itinerant 1, no. 252 m.8d; C.C.R. 1314, pp. 191, 195.

(62) C.I.P.M. v. No. 475

(63) Herts Lay Subsidy Roll, PRO. E.179/120/2/m.12/1; ibid m.14/1; m40/1.

(64) see Denholm Young N, Seignorial Administration in England (Oxford, 1937), pp. 77-84.

(65) Feudal Aids, ii. pp. 131, 135, 141.

(66) Feet of Fines ii. p.119, no. 30; ii. p.119 no 29.

(67) One third of the manor of aldham for 100, Feet of Fines ii. p.107 no. 822; 140 acres and two fifths of Little Laver. Feet of Fines. ii. p. 108 no. 835, The latter to Bouser.

(68) Feet of Fines ii. p. 134 no. 185.

(69) Feet of Fines ii. p.120 no.36. Now known as Prayers Farm, perhaps a mutation of Pratellis. Reaney, op cit p.441.

(70) Feet of Fines ii. p.122 no 51; ii. p.124 no.93.

(71) Feet of Fines ii. p.157 no. 410.

(72) The succession going to John son of John, Feet of Fines ii. p.156 no.401, with reversion of two mills going to Thomas Pratellis, Feet of Fines ii. p.157 no.411.

(73) Feet of Fines ii. p.166 no. 503; ii. p.192 no.778.

(74) Feudal Aids ii. pp.156, 164, 157, 213.

(75) PRO Justices Itinerant. 1. No.247 m.15.

(76) Parliamentary Writs, I p.166 no.19.

(77) Tout T.F., Chapters in Medieval Administrative History (London, 1920) iii. P.124; C.I.P.M. ix. no.239.

(78) St. John Brooks E., 'Sir Thomas Blount, executed in 1400 and the Blounts of Kingston Blount, Oxon', Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica 5th Series, vii (1929-31), espeially pp. 161, 168, 173.

(79) Williams G.A., Medieval London from Cvommune to Capital, (London, 1963) pp. 63, 76; Thrupp S. The Merchant Classes of Medieval London, (Ann Arbor, 1962) p.324.

(80) Williams G.A. op.cit. p.70: Calender of Charter Rolls, i. p.250.

(81) PRO, Justices Itinerant 1. no229.dm.16; Farrer W. Honours and Knights' Fees (London, 1870) iii. pp. 203-5; Calendar of Close Rolls. 1228, p.46.

(82) Farrer W., op.cit. iii. p.205.

(83) Feet of Fines i. p.11 no. 21; Calendar of Patent Rolls 1242, pp. 310, 385, 395, 481; ibid 1256, p.482; Treharne R.F., The Baronial Plan of Reform, (Manchester, 1932) pp. 114, 125, 275.

(84) Feudal Aids ii. p. 137.

(85) Calendar of Close Rolls 1278 p.442; C.I.P.M. i. no. 729.

(86) Calendar of Charter Rolls ii. P.267; C.I.P.M. v. no. 445.

(87) Calendar of Patent Rolls 1309, p.163; Calendar of Close Rolls, 1313, p.15. He had remarried by 1293, Calendar of Patent Rolls 1293, p.46. See all Sanders I.J., English Baronies. P.28.

(88) C.I.P.M. v. no. 445; ibid. vi. No.579..

(89) Calendar of Patent Rolls 1265, p.406. He was, however, on the wrong side at Northampton. ibid, 1265, p. 509.

(90) Calendar of Patent Rolls 1252, p.154; Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora v, p.318; Denholm Young N., Collected Papers (Cardiff, 1969) p.109.

(91) Calendar of Miscellaneous Inquisitions i, no. 661; Calendar of Patent Rolls 1266, pp. 635, 657.

(92) Buttle L.R., 'The de Tanys of Stapleford Tany', Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society, new series, xx. (1933)

(93) Buttle L.R., op. cit. Pp.161, 165; Victoria County History of Essex, iv. p.277. See also Jacob R.F., Studies in the period of Baronial Reform and Rebellion, pp. 199-201 (Oxford, 1925).

(94) Sanders I.J. English Baronies p.5; Victoria County History of Essex iv. P.46.

(95) Calendar of Close Rolls 1259-61, p.454; ibid, 1261-4, p.379; Calendar of Patent Rolls 1258-66, p.117; ibid, 1268-72, p.50.

(96) Rotuli Parliamentorum, I. p.48.

(97) PRO I.P.M., C.134.47.no.16; c.133.107.no.26.

(98) the question of the relationship between distraint of knighthood and military needs is discussed below in Chapter VIII, in the context of the military activities of the Essex knights.

(99) These were: in Group A: Beachamp, PRO Justices Itinerant 1.(hereafter JI.1) 245.m.4; Breton, JI.1 236B.m.10; Duresme, JI.1 236B.m.12; Fillol, JI.1 238.m.55d. Group B: Wascoyl, JI.1 245.m/17. Group C: Boxted, JI.1 238.m.58; Burnham, JI.1 245.m.40; Crepping, JI.1 238.m.58; Mandevill JI.1 247.m.18d; Wokingdam , JI.1 247.m.17d. Group D: Haningfield, JI.1 247.m.26; Goldingham, JI.1 245.m.17; Merk R. JI.1 236B.m.12. There was, in addition, one William de Lambourne, respited knighthood in 1256 'because he is sick', Calendar of Patent Rolls 1257 p.468.

(100) JI.1 236B.m.12.

(101) Calendar of Charter Rolls i.p.250; Calendar of Close Rolls 1266, p.179. Jollan the elder died in December 1263, C.I.P.M. i. no.573, and it may be that the fine of 1262 refers to him rather than to his son. The latter did not pay the relief due on his inheritance until 1272, nearly ten years later, PRO. Exchequer. E.368. 47 m.24.

(102) It is worth rembering that some barons, especially those in the lower reaches of the baronage, were no less anxious to avoid, limit or otherwise conceal their status and obligations in order to qualify for a lower rate of relief, see Chew H. Ecclesiastical Tenants in Chief (Oxford, 1932), pp.166-7.

(103) C.I.P.M. i. no.441.

(104) Calendar of Close Rolls, 1259 p.369; C.I.P.M. i. no.441

(105) PRO Justices Itinerant 1 236B m.12.

(106) Beauchamp, C.I.P.M. ii. no.409, PRO Justices Itinerant 1, 234.m.4; Breton, C.I.P.M. i. no.491, JI.1 236B.m.10; Fillol, C.I.P.M. i. no.476, JI.1 238.m.55D; PRO Exchequer E.368.53.dm.1; ibid 54.m.27.

(107) Calendar of Close Rolls 1272, p.505.