(1) Cam H.M. Studies in the Hundred Rolls (Oxford, 1921) p.147; The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls (London, 1963); White A.B. Self Government at the King's Command (Minneapolis, 1933); Harding Law Courts *** Jewell Local Administration *** etc.

(2) Denholm Young N., Collected Papers Cap IV., 'The Knights'; Treharne R.F., 'The Knights in the period of Baronial Refeorm and Rebellion 1258-67', B.I.H.R. xxi (1946-8) p.3; and, as an example of such assumptions made in passing, Hilton R.H., 'Peasant Movements in England before 1381', in Carus Wilson E.M. (Ed) Essays in Economic History, ii (London, 1962) p.83.

(3) Treharne R.F., op.cit. P.4; see also the venerable Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, i. p.411 for an authoritative statement of the conventional view.

(4) Denholm Young N., Collected Papers, p.89.

(5) On the transformation of franchisal rights into governmental obligations, see Cam H.M. 'The evolution of the medieval English Franchise', Speculum xxxii (1957) p.438; Miller E. , 'The State and landed interests in Thirteenth Century France and England", Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 5th series, ii. (1952) and Sutherland D.M. Quo Warranto Proceedings in the Reign of Edward I. (1963)

(6) Treharne R.F. The Baronial Plan of Reform, pp.39, 42, 205-7.

(7) PRO., Lists and Indexes ix, p.43. The other eleven sheriffs holding office over the period 1274-1303 were: Thomas de Sandwych, Laurence de Scaccario, William Sr Clare, Reginald de Gynges, John Carbonel, William de Sutton, Simon de Bradenham, William de Harpesden, John de Wengrave, John de Bassingbourne and John de Harpesfield. Since the Essex shrievalty was jointly held with Hertfordshire some of these men were recruited from Hertfordshire rather than Essex. Ralph de Arderne [A] and Richard de Tany [C] may have held office as sheriff during the reign of Henry IIIrd.

(8) PRO., Justices Itinerant 1., 245.m.102; ibid , 245.m.5; PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.59.m.27D.

(9) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.61.m.9D, m.10, m.32.

(10) Calendar of Close Rolls., 1291, p.168

(11) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.66.m.100D; ibid., 70.m.70D

(12) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.71.m.16D.

(13) C.I.P.M. iii, no.579.

(14) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.74.m.17D.

(15) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.76.m.42,m; m.30D.

(16) Calendar of Close Rolls., 1309, p.117.

(17) from 30th April 1286 to Easter 1288, PRO., Lists and Indexes ix, p.43.

(18) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.61.m.47; no.65.m.85D; no.66.m.100D, m.61, m.92D. 

(19) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.70.m.70D; 71.m.16D.

(20) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.72.m.20; m.22.

(21) Annals of Dunstable, Annales Monasitici, iii. P.339

(22) PRO., Lists and Indexes., ix. p.43.

(23) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.61.m.42; no.62.m.17D.

(24) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.62.m.37; no.65.m.85D; no.70.m.70.

(25) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.76.m73; C.I.P.M., iv. no.154.

(26) PRO, Lists and Indexes, ix p.43.

(27) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 n.62.m.13; no.63.m.41.

(28) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.64.m,63D.

(29) Calendar of Close Rolls, 1296, p.521.

(30) C.I.P.M. iii. no.453; PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.75.m.49.

(31) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.66.m.58; no.66.m.88D; no.67.m.54.

(32) PRO., Lists and Indexes, ix. p.43.

(33) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.75.m.81.

(34) PRO., Lists and Indexes, ix. p.43.

(35) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 n.72.m.40DS; Calendar of Patenet Rolls, 1301, p.613; PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.74.m.32.

(36) Calendar of Close Rolls, 1291 p.168; 1309 p.117.

(37) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1287, p.266; Parliamentary Writs, p.290 no.24.

(38) see below **

(39) Harding A., 'The Origins and early history of the Keeper of the Peace', T.R.H.S. 5th series, x. (1960).

(40) Calendar of Patent Rolls 1287, p.266.

(41) Cam H., Liberties and Communities in Medieval England , (London, 1963) pp.164-5. The Group A Parliamentary Knight John le Breton was similarly appointed in Norfolj, apparently by election in the county court, ibid.

(42) Harding A., 'The Origins and early history of the Keeper of the Peace', p.100

(43) Parliamentary Writs, ii p.390 no.24.

(44) Parliamentary Writs, ii p.9 no.4, p.12 no.56, p.28 no.28; p.73 no.26, p.76 no.34; p.103 no.42, p.476 no.8.

(45) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1258 p.655.

(46) Calendar of Close Rolls, 1275 p.12; ibid., 1286, p.383; ibid., 1298, p.145.

(47) Calendar of Close Rolls, 1314, p.147.

(48) Calendar of Close Rolls, 1257, p.34. This probably refers to John le Breton the elder.

(49) Calendar of Close Rolls, 1318, p.10.

(50) Gross C. introduction to 'Select Coroners Rolls', Selden Society ix. (1895) pp.xx-xxi.

(51) Fleta Book ii. Clause 18., Selden Society pp.40-41.

(52) PRO. Lists and Indexes, ix., p.43.

(53) Calendar of Close Rolls, 1286, p.399.

(54) Calendar of Close Rolls, 1306, p.388.

(55) Calendar of Close Rolls, 1300, p.346. See also ibid., 1309, p.119.

(56) PRO, Justices Itinerant 1., no.249.m.2, and no.235. They were: Peter de Taleworth, Lawrence de Plumberew, Gilbert de Stauford, Wychard Ledet, Thomas of Dagenham, William Giffard, Eustace de Genevill and Fulk de Bathonia. 

(57) Hunniset R.F., The Medieval Coroner., (Cambridge, 1961) p.173.

(58) There were no coroners at all in Essex in 1276, ibid.,p.154.

(59) PRO, Exchequer.,; no.61.m.44; no.62 m.3; no.62 m.11D; no.63.m.32D, and no.64m.49 & m.59; Calendar of Close Rolls, 1321 p.403.

(60) PRO, Justices Itinerant 1, no.247 m.14D; no.249 m.1; PRO, Exchequer E.368, no.67 m.23D; no.70 m.69; no.72 m.50 & m.27.

(61) PRO Justices Itinerant 1, n.245 m.103D. See also Rotuli Hundredorum., I, pp.137-8.

(62) Pollock F. & Maitland F.W., History of English Law, I, pp.200-201.

(63) Harding A., 'The early history of the Keepers of the Peace', pp.103, 108-9; see also Putnam B., 'The transformation of the Keepers of the Peace in Justices of the Peace', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 4th series., xii (1929).

(64) Harding A., op.cit., p.108-9

(65) ibid., p.103; Holdsworth W.J., The History of English , 1st edition, I. (London, 1903) p.121. The statutes in question are Westminster II (1285), clause 30, and De Finibus Levatis (1299) clauses 3 and 4.

(66) Calendar of Close Rolls 1296, p.5.

(67) Calendar of Patent Rolls 1287, pp.279, 281, 284; ibid., 1288, p.304

(68) Foss E., Judges of England, (London, 1870) p.111.

(69) as for note 67.

(70) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1292, p.521; 1293, p.25; Calendar of Close Rolls, 1294, p.361; ibid., 1296, p.474.

(71) His identity is open to doubt since the name was not uncommon and includes, amongst other possibilities, the John le Breton who was Custos of London, and the John le Breton who was a royal judge but became Bishop of Hereford in 1269 and was unlikely to have been active in the 1280s. Powick F.M. The Thirteenth Century, (Oxford, 1953) p.729

(72) Calendar of Close Rolls, 1296 p.5; Calendar of Patent Rolls , 1288 p.304. There is no mentin of Fillol's associates.

(73) as for note 70.

(74) Calendar of Patent Rolls 1291, p.458, Calendar of Close Rolls , 1294 pp.349, 354.

(75) Calendar of Close Rolls 1293, p.338; 1294 pp. 341, 394.

(76) Holdsworth W.S., op.cit. p.119.

(77) C.I.P.M. I. no.491; ibid. no.365; Foss E., op.cit. P.122.

(78) C.I.P.M. I. no.491; Calendar of Close Rolls, 1261 p.386.

(79) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1311 p.369; C.I.P.M. V. no.262.

(80) Calendar of Patent Rolls , 1279 p.250; Foss E. op.cit. P.720.

(81) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1284 p.144; 1289 p.332; 1291 pp.457, 456, 460.

(82) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1292 p.516; 1295 pp.164 and 211.

(83) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1299 pp.467, 469. He also enquired into similar trespasses in Hugh's park in Suffolk Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1299 p.470. Botetourt was not a professinal justice but a household banneret and possible illegitimate son of Edward Ist. (Harding A., England in the Thirteenth Century, (Cambridge, 1993) p.192. The baronial Despenser family needs no introduction.

(84) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1302 pp.80, 82.

(85) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1306-7 pp.543, 545, 549, 550; ibid., 1307-1311 pp.37, 41, 51, 88, 165, 174, 240, 241, 243, 258, 365. He was usually associated with Justice Ormesby; in Essex, ibid., 1307-1311 pp.104, 244.

(86) Parliamentary Writs I., p.22 no11; p.107 no.50, assuming that it is the same individual.

(87) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1307 p.41; Rotuli Parliamentorum I., p.325B.

(88) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1291 p.456, twice; 1292 p.516; 1296 p.216; 1297 p.264.

(89) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1300 pp.547, 553, 620.

(90) Wauton as Conservator of the Peace in Essex in 1314, Calendar of Patent Rolls, 13154 p.124, and as commissioner of Oyer and Terminer in the same year, ibid., p.243, and in 1315, ibid., 1315 pp.248, 408. Baud held his first commission in Hertfordshire in 1311 with Justice R. de Madingley, ibid., 1311 p.133; in Essex and Herts, in 1309, 1313, 1315, ibid., 1309 p.244, 603; 1315 p.407.

(91) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1298 p.362; 1301 p.619; He also received a commission of Trailbaston in Essex and Herts in 1303, ibid, 1303 p.186.

(92) Goldingfam with Justice Ormesby in 1314, Calendar of Patent Rolls, p.171; Morel with Nicholas Barrington in association with Justice Goldington in 1313, ibid., 1313 p.63.

(93) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1302 p.92; Calendar of Miscellaneous Inquisitions, I. No.1878; Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1304 pp.278, 281, 285, 288 and 358. He held a further commission in Cambridgeshire in 1313, with justice Goldington and Geoffrey Morel, ibid., 1313 p.63.

(94) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1295 p.162.

(95) ibid., p.164

(96) ibid., 1296 p.215

(97) ibid., 1299 p.468; 1300 p.546.

(98) ibid., 1300 p.546

(99) ibid., 1302 pp.42, 82.

(100) ibid., 1304 pp.278, 281, 358.

(101) ibid., 1290 p.400; 1296 p.220.

(102) ibid., 1290 p.400; 1295 pp.162, 215; 1296 p.220; 1300 p.546.

(103) ibid., 1300 p.547; PRO ., Lists and Indexes, ix p.43. He also took the Balliol case in 1300, Calendar of Patent Rolls, p.553, which leaves the trespass against the Earl of Hereford in 1298 as the only other important case heard exclusively by persons of lesser authority than professional justices or current sheriffs. Gros, who took this case, had been sheriff in 1292.

(104) these see duties were often held within the purview of the coroner, see Hunnisett R.F. The Medieval Coroner, p.202.

(105) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1290 p.395; 1306 p.473.

(106) ibid., 1303 p.188; 1287 p.276.

(107) PRO., Exhechequer E.368 no.72.m.40D; Feudal Aids, I p.10.

(108) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1300 p.517; Calendar of Miscellaneous Inquisitions, I, no.1920.

(109) PRO., Exchequer E.368 no.67.m.67; Calendar of Close Rolls 1296 pp.74-5; 1297 p.291; Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1303 p.159.

(110) Calendar of Fine Rolls ii, pp.217, 218, 222.

(111) Calendar of Miscellaneous Inquisitions, I, no.1148. Others involved in this commission included Lawrence de Plumberew, John de Chauncy and William de Aumbley.

(112) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1306 p.418. Tany was appointed to hear complaints against the Statute of Stamford in 1309, ibid., p.249, collected scutage in 1314, and died shortly afterwards. Calendar of Fine Rolls, ii pp.217, 222. Wauton was Keeper of the Essex Coast in 1316, Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1316 p.533; assigned to enquire into the collection of scutage in 1314, Calendar of Fine Rolls, ii p.217, and into the oppressions caused by Hugh le Despenser in 1315, Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1315 p.408. He was also one of the justices of perambulation and investigator into the malpractices of royal officials in the same year, ibid 1315 pp.296, 248.

(113) ibid 1274 p.59; 1277 p.244.

(114) ibid ., 1278 pp.285-287.

(115) ibid 1303 p.186; 1310 p.313.

(116) PRO., Exchequer, E.368 no.67.m.67; Calendar of Close Rolls, 1296 p.74.

(117) Keeper of the Peace in Essex in 1264, Calendar of Close Rolls, 1264 p.396; Defense of the Coast against conspiracies of the king's enemies in 1266, Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1266 pp.655-6; assigned to receive thedisinherited , also in 1266, ibid , 1266 pp.370, 658; Keeper of Hadleigh Castle in 1268, ibid., 1268 p.232. These posts were probably held by Richard de Tany the Younger since his father appears to have been on the side of the barons.

(118) Calendar of Miscellaneous Inquisitions., I. no.1878; ibid., ii, 869; Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1315 p.296.

(119) Calendar of Fine Rolls, i p.112; Rotuli Parliamentorum, I p.192.

(120) Calendar of Miscellaneous Inquisitions, i. no.1491; Calendar of Close Rolls, 1300 pp.389, 395; Calendar of Miscellaneous Inquisitions, i. No.1892; Calendar of Patent Rolls 1307 p.488; ibid., 1309 p.249.

(121) PRO., Justices Itinerant., 1 (hereafter J.I. 1,) no245.m.1.

(122) J.I., 1. no.245.m.1; no.246.m.41; no.245.m.1; no.246.m.41.

(123) J.I., 1. no.247.m.32d; no.246.m.37; no.247.m.32d; no.245.m.1d.

(124) J.I., 1. no.245.m.1; no.247.m.31; no.246.m.41d; no.249.m.1. 

(125) J.I., 1. no,245.m.1,: no.246.m.10d; no.245.m.1.

(126) J.I., 1. no.245.m.1d, twice; no.238.m.45; no.233.m.59.

(127) Sutherland D.W., Quo Warranto Proceedings in the Reign of Edward Ist 1278-1294, (Oxford, 1963). Miller E., 'The State and Landed Interests in Thirteenth Century France and England'., T.R.H.S.., 5th series, ii. (1952)***

(128) J.I. 1. no.249.m.46; ibid., 246.m.52.

(129) ibid., no.247.m.15; no.245.m.32d; no247.m.19.

(130) Rotuli Hundredorum, i. p.160.

(131) J.I.., 1. no.247.m.23d; no.245.m.27; no.245.m.32.

(132) J.I., 1. no.249,m,4d; Rotuli Hundredorum., i. p.153.

(133) J.I., 1. no.238.m.51; no.245.m.2d.

(134) C.I.P.M. vi. no.758; J.I. 1. no.246.m.56; no.247.m.21d; Exchequer (1289); ibid., no.62.m.8 (1290) and no.70.m.36d.(1298)

(135) Rotuli Hundredorum., i.pp.153, 162, 163.

(136) J.I. 1. no.245.m.38; no.245.m.79.

(137) J.I. 1. no.245.m.11; Rotuli Hundredorum, I. pp.161, 157; J.I., 1. no.233.m.49D; no.247.m21D.

(138) at Barrow in 1285, J.I. 1. no.245.m.45; at Buttsbury in 1271, J.I. 1. no.238.m.58; at Dunmow in 1285, J.I. 1. no.245.m.108D; at Thaxted in 1271-2, J.I. 1. no.238.m.48D; and at Braxted in 1285, J.I. 1. no.247.m.18d.