(1) Willard J.F., Parliamentary Taxation on Personal Property 1290-1334 (Cambridge Mass,1934) pp.54-55. Pasquet D., The Origins of the House of Commons (London, 1964) p.192.

(2) White A.B., 'Some early instances of the Concentration of Representatives in England', A.H.R., xix (1914); Hoyt R.S., 'Representation in the Administrative Practice of Anglo Norman England', in: Album H.M. Cam. (Louvain, 1960)

(3) Powicke F.M. & Fryde E.M., eds., Handbook of British Chronology, Royal Historical Society, (London, 1961). pp.506-513; House of Commons Parliamentary Papers - Returns of the Names of ever member of the Lower House of Parliament 1213-1874 , H.M.S.O. (London, 1878). The names and references for the knights returned for Essex are listed below pp ****

(4) The development of the wording of the writs has been discussed long ago by a variety of scholars, most notably Gaines Post in 'Plena Potestas and Consent in Medieval Assemblies', Traditio I, (1943), and most comprehensively by B. Wilkinson in his Constitutional Studies (Manchester, 1942), pp.36-44. No significant advance has been made on these early analyses.

(5) see Cam H.M., Law Finders and Law Makers, pp.126-7, on the mystical qualities of legal witnessing.

(6) Maitland F.W., Memoranda de Parliamento 1305, Rolls Series (London, 1893) pp.11,295.

(7) Gray H.L., The Influence of the Commons on Early Legislation, (Harvard, 1932) pp.201, 210; Haskins G.L., 'The Petitions of the Representative in the Parliaments of Edward Ist', E.H.R.., liii (1938); Rayner D.M., 'Form and Machinery of Commune Petition in the Fourteenth Century', E.H.R.., lvi (1941).

(8) Riess L., Engligh Electoral Law., trans. K. Wood-Legh. (Cambridge, 1940) pp.3-7.

(9) Pasquet D., Origins of the House of Commons, Merlin Edition (London, 1964) pp.183-186.

(10) Maddicott J.R. 'Parliament and the Constituencies', in R.G. Davies and J.H. Denton, eds. The English Parliament in the Middle Ages, (Manchester, 1981), pp.64-66.

(11) see in general Cam H.M., The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls pp.249-257.

(12) Haskins G.L., 'Petitions of Representatives in the Parliaments of Edward Ist', E.H.R.., liii (1938)

(13) Wilkinson B., Constitutional History iii, pp.144-5.

(14) Rotuli Parliamentorum., I

(15) Rotuli Parliamentorum., I p.285

(16) ibid., p.64

(17) C.I.P.M. ii, no.409; FF., I,; Reany P.H. op.cit., p.429.

(18) Maitland F.W., Memoranda de Parliamento 1305, and, p ** 89.

(19) Rotuli Parliamentorum., I p.436; C.I.P.M. vi, no.715.

(20)Rotuli Parliamentorum Hactenus Inediti., eds. H.G.Richardson and G.O. Sayles, Camden Society, 3rd series. li, (1935) p.57.

(21) Rotuli Parliamentorum., I, p.402; C.C.R.., 1322, p.595.

(22) Rotuli Parliamentorum., I, p.5.

(23) Rotuli Parliamentorum., I, p.92

(24) C.F.R. I, p.112.

(25) C.C.R. 1274, p.119.

(26) Exchequer L.T.R. E.368 no.53.m.15.

(27) Rotuli Parliamentorum, I, p.60.

(28) Exchequer L.T.R. E.368 no.61.m.47; no.62.m.8.

(29) Exchequer L.T.R. E.368 no.70.m.36d.

(30) Rotuli Parliamentorum, I, p.159; Memoranda de Parliamento 1305, p.5.n.3; C.C.R. 1305, p.248.

(31) Rotuli Parliamentorum, I, p.48; Exchequer L.T.R. E.368 no.50.m.13.

(32) This should probably be John son of Walter, Exchequer L.T.R. E.368 no.61.m.47.

(33) said here to amount to 40, not 4 as in 1289, Exchequer L.T.R. E.368 no.63.m.5.

(34) for example Rotuli Parliamentorum, I, pp.53, no.93; 157, no.17; 169 no.83.

(35) see Maitland F.W., Memoranda de Parliamento 1305 p.1, where he discusses the wide publicity given to the place and time for the presentation of petitions.

(36) see below*** for references

(37) see Rothwell H. 'Edward Ist and the Struggle for the Charters, 1297-1305', in Studies in Medieval History presented to F.M. Powicke, eds. R.W. Hunt, W.A. Pantin and R.W. Southern, (Oxford, 19948); Rothwell H., 'The Confirmation of the Charters', E.H.R. lx (1945).

(38) for references see Handbook of British Chronology pp.512-3.

(39) Parliamentary Writs p.65, no.5

(40) Pasquet D., Origins of the House of Commons, p.111; Wilkinson B., Constitutional Studies, pp.32-33; Rothwell H., ed., The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, Camden Society, 3rd Series, lxxxix (1957) p.323.

(41) This was a full parliament following the 1295 pattern, P.W.I., p.85.n.10; Pasquet, op.cit..,pp.112-113.

(42) Powicke F.M., The Thirteenth Century, pp.700-1; Pasquet, op.cit., pp.112-113.

(43) 108) Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1300 p.517; Calendar of Miscellaneous Inquisitions, I,no.1920. See above p*****

(44) Riley H.T., ed., Willelmi Rishanger, Chronica et Annales, Rolls Series (London, 1865) pp.404-5.

(45) on these parliaments see especially Luard H.R. Flores Historiarum, Rolls Series (London, 1890) iii, p.109; C.P.R., 1301, p.614; P.W.I., pp.104-5; also Pasquet, op.cit., pp.113-3; Morris W.A., 'Magnates and the Community of the Realm in Parliament', Medievalia et Humastica, I, (1943) p.67; Powicke F.M., Thirteenth Century, p.704; Clarke M.V., Medieval Representation and Consent, (London, 19936) p.315.

(46) P.W.I. p.115 no.11.

(47) Pasquet, op.cit., p.118.

(48) P.W.I., p.107, no.,50; F.A. ii, p.129.

(49) P.W.I., p.140, no.12.

(50) Pasquet, op.cit., p.119; Powicke, Thirteenth Century, pp.345-6.

(51) Powick, op.cit., p.712 note 1, and p.718; Richardson H.G. and Sayles G.O. 'The Parliament of Carlisle 1307, some new documents', E.H.R., liii (1938).

(52) see Mitchell S.K., Taxation in Medieval England, (New Haven, 1951) p.385.

(53) The substance of this section was first published in the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, xlix, 1976, pp.24-40.

(54) J. G. Edwards, ' The personnel of the Commons in parliament under Edward I and Edward II ', in Essays in Medieval History presented to T. F. Tout, ed. A. G. Little and F. M. Powicke (Manchester, I925), pp. 197-214.

(55) A. F. Pollard, 'History, English and Statistics', History, xi (1926-7), 15-24

(56) J. G. Edwards, "'Re-election" and the medieval parliament', History, xi (1926), 204-IO.57)

(57) Pollard A.F, The Evolution of Parliament (***,1920), p. 8. See also Pasquet D., The Origins of the House of Commons, (Cambridge, 1925), p. 224.

(58) P.W., I. p.37, no. 14; p.58, no. 22; p. 69, no 13; p. 94, no. 18; p.134, no. 18; p.169, no. 27.

(59) P.W., I. p.22, no. 11.

(60) P.W., I. p.67, no. 10.

(61) P.W., I. p.66, no.5; p.119, no.23.

(62) P.W., I. 22, no. 15.

(63 ) P.W., I. 94, no.19. See also P.W., II.ii. p.110, no.47

(64) P.W., I. 35, no.11.


(65) P.W., I. p.57, no.18; p.60, no.33.

(66) P.W., I. p.86, no.10.

(67) P.W., I. p.94, no.18.

(68) At Didcot in Berks., Calendar of Charter Rolls, iii. 59; Feudal Aids, I. 54; at Buttsbury in Essex, C.I.P.M., I, no.447; P.W., I. p.190, no.12; P.W., II.ii. p.110, no.47. See also N. Denholm-Young, History and Heraldry, 1254 to 131O (Oxford, 1965), p.152, for other examples.

(69) P.W., I. p.94-5, nos. 19-20.

(70) P.W., I. p.94, no. 19.

(71) P.W., I. p.66, no.7; p.70, no.16; pp.59-60, nos.28,33.

(72) P.W., I. p.85-6, no.10; p.102, no.41

(73) P.W., I. p.60, no.33

(74) P.W.,1. p.66, no.7; p.70, no.16.

(75) P.W., I. p.69, no.14.

(76) P.W.,1. p.44, no.31; .p.57, no.19; p.60, no.36.

(77) P.W., I. p.172, no.35.

(78) P.W., I. pp.92-101, nos. 12, 15, 19, 23, 34, 38.

(79) See Wood-Legh KL., 'Sheriffs, lawyers and belted knights in the parliaments of Edward IIIrd', E.H.R., xlvi (1931), pp 372-88; Riess L. English Electoral Law, pp. 57-8; see also P.W., II.ii. p.315, no.89 for an example.

(80) History of English Law, ii, p.584.

(81) C.P.R., 1292-1301, p.80.

(82) John of Langford, mainpernor of John Fillol in 1297 cannot be positively identified, but Langford is in Thurstable hundred where Fillol held some of his lands, Feet of Fines for Essex (hereafter F.F.), ed. R G. Kirk and others (4 vols., Colchester, 1899-1964), I. p.280, no.1678. John Swet, mainpernor of John de Tany in 1305, may be the John Swettyng who claimed lands in Chelmsford, Buttsbury and Hanningfield in Chelmsford hundred in 1304, F.F., ii. p.99, no.744. Tany may have held some land at Springfield, also in Chelmsford hundred, C.I.P.M., vi. 114.

(83) P.W, I. p.37, no.14; F.F., ii. p.59, no.387; ii. p.103, no.794.

(84) P.W., I. p37, no.14; C.I.P.M., vi, no.47.

(85) C.I.P.M., I, no.447; Feudal Aids, ii. p.134; F.F., ii. p.171, no.560; P.W., I. p69, no.I3.

(86) P.W.,I. p.69, no.13; C.I.P.M., v, no.503.

(87) P.W., I. p.94, no.18; F.F., ii. p.78, no.566.

(88) P.W., I. p.69, no.13; p.94, no.18; p.120, no.26.

(89) P.W., I. p.69, no.13; p.169, no.27.

(90) C.I.P.M., I, no.573; F.F., ii. p107, no.830.

(91) P.W., I. p.413.

(92) Book of Fees, pp. 869-80; Feudal Aids, I. p.149; ii. p.430; FF., ii, p.81, no.596; iii, p.32, no.148.

(93) For Bedfordshire in 1295, P.W., I. p.34, no.7; for Cambridgeshire in 1297, P.W., I. p.57, no.17; for Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire in 1298, P.W., I. p.66, no.7; p.70, no.16; for Bedfordshire in 1302, P.W., I. p.118, no.17; for Cambridgeshire in 1306, P.W., I. p.167, no. 22.

(94) P.W., I. p.273, no.4.

(95) C.P.R., 1292-1301, pp.302-3.

(96) F.F., ii. p.100, no.756; ii. p.109, no.849.

(97) for references see lists in Appendix F.

(98) Thomas Peyvre, 1367 F.F., iii,; John atte Fen, 1408, F.F., iii, p.252 no.191.

(99) F.F., ii, p.78, no.566; p.203, no.883; iii, p.3, no.23.

(100) See Perroy E., ' Social mobility among the French noblesse in the later middle ages', Past and Present, xxi (1962), 25-38, for comparable conditions in France.

(101) Riess, English Electoral Law.

(102) ibid., pp.52-4.

(103) As early as 1919 G. T. Lapsley had established beyond reasonable doubt that parliamentary elections were not generally influenced by the magnates or by maintenance and retaining, ' Knights of the shire in the parliaments of Edward II ', E.H.R., xxxiv (1919), pp.25-42, 152-171. See also Treharne R.F., 'The knights in the period of baronial reform and rebellion, 1258-67', E.H.R.., xxi (1946-8), pp.3-4; Jacob E.F, Studies in the Period of Baronial Reform and Rebellion, 1258-67 (Oxford, 1925), p.300; Denholm-Young N., ' Feudal society in the 13th century: the knights ' in Collected Papers on Medieval Subjects (Cardiff, 1969).

(104) McFarlane K.B., 'Parliament and bastard feudalism', T. R.H.S., 4th ser., xxvi (1944), pp.53-79

(105) Riess, op.cit., p.53.

(106) ibid., p.53.

(107) Davis E.J., 'A parliamentary election in 1298 ', E.H.R, iii (1925-6), pp.45-6.

(108) The stages through which such definition became necessary are dealt with by Roskell J.S., The Commons in the Parliament of 1422 (Manchester, 1954), ch. I.

(109) P.W.,I, p.x.

(110) P.W., II. ii, p. xxxvii.

(111) P.W.,I. p.190, no.12; II.ii. p.92, no.53; II.ii. p.87, no.42.

(112) P.R.O., J.I. 1, no.1246. m. 41; ibid.; Exchequer LT.R.., E .368 no.59 m. 41; E 368 no.66.m. 47; E.368 no.66.m.66; E.368 no.71.m.16d.

(113) C.P.R., 1281-92, p.395; Exchequer L.T.R., E.368 no.72 m. 40d; C.P.R. 1292-1301, p. 613; C.P.R. 1307-13, p.184.

(114) C.P.R. 1307-13, p.31; C.P.R. 1313-17, p.109.

(115) P.R.O., Inquisitions Post Mortem, C.132 no.23.m.2; Calendar of Charter Rolls, iii. 59.

(116) in 1277, P.W.,I. p.204, no.8; 1282, P.W., I. p.233, no.16; 1286, Calendar of Chancery Rolls, Various 1277-1326, p.373; 1297, P.W., I. p.290, no.18, p.298, no. 41, p.303, no. 1; 1298, P.W., I. p.312, no. 33; 1300, P.W., II.ii. p.447, no.144; Calendar of Chancery Rolls, Various 1277-1326, p.113; 1301, P.W., I. p.352, no.6; 1303, P.R.O., Chancery Miscellanea, C 47.m.5 no.6.

(117) P.R.O., E 368 no.67 m.67; C.P.R. 1292-1301, p.291; Calendar of Close Rolls 1296-1302, p.5; C.P.R. 1301-7, p.159.

(118) C.P.R. 1307-13, p.518

(119) Worth nearly 30 p.a., P.R.O., C.134 no.55 m.x.

(120) in 1282, P.W., I. p.223, no.2; 1297, p.298, no.38; 1297, p.303, no.l; 1298, p.309, no.25, p.310, no.31; 1301, 352, no.6.

(121) P.W., II.ii. p.47, no.7; II. ii. p.77, no.14; expenses writ only, P.W., II. ii. p.158, no.27.

(122) For references see P.W., II.ii, pp. xxxvii-xl

(123) Fillol, who attended parliament in 1301 at the probable age of 64, is the only reasonably certain example. In 1312 he was exempted from all jury service because of his age, C.P.R. 1307-13, p.518. He died in 1317 at the age of 80, C.I.P.M., vi, no. 47, and so was probably born around 1237, C.I.P.M., I, no. 476; PW., II, p.590, no.254. Two other octogenerian Essex knights were pursued for military service by Edward IInd, namely Gros, PW., I, p.590, no.271, and Gernon, ibid., p.590, no.268. Clearly some kings did not regard a knight as inactive until he was dead.

(124) C.I.P.M., v, no.503. Jollan was born in 1258, C.I.P.M., I, no.573.

(125) These and subsequent references in this paragraph are from Return of Members of Parliament: England, 1213-1702 (1878), unless otherwise stated.

(126) Ibid.

(127) C.I.P.M., iv, no. 73.

(128) C.P.R. 1313-17, p.171

(129) C.P.R. 1313-17, p.133

(130) See M. McKisack, The Parliamentary Representation of the English Boroughs during the Middle Ages (1932), pp.21-2.

(131) P.W., I. p.96, no.23; I. p.99, no.34; I. p.92, no.12; I. p. 94, no.19; I. p.93, no.15; 1. p.100, no. 38.

(132) Wood-Legh K., ' Sheriffs, lawyers and belted knights', pp.373-6.

(133) see Appendix A.

(134) P.W.., I, Abstracts of Writs and Returns. p.x.

(135) Rotuli Parliamentorum, I, p.188a: P.W. I, p.181, no.1.

(136) C.C.R.., 1307, p.487; P.W., I. p.191, no.16.

(137) see above p.*****

(138) P.W., I. p.15, no.20; p.79, no.5; p.82, no.1; p.90, no.4; p.112 no.6.; p.136 no.1.

(139) C.P.R.., 1295 p.172.

(140) P.W., I. p.166, no.19.

(141) PRO, Exchequer, E.368 no.62.m.10; see above p.****

(142) C.C.R.., 1314, p.195.

(143) P.W., II.ii., p.127, no.31.

(144) P.W., II.ii., p.133, no.23; p.136, no.33.

(145) P.W., II.ii., p.161, no.42.

(146) Cole H., Documents, pp.133-4.

(147) P.W., II.ii., pp.3, 18, 21, 23. A similar identity problem arises with the John le Breton who acted as Custos of London in 1296, P.W., I, pp. 278,279

(148) P.W.,I. p.62, no., 41.

(149) P.W., II.ii., p.19, no.45.

(150) These were, Henry de Gray, C.I.P.M. viii, no.391; John Dagworth, C.I.P.M., viii, no.435; Peter Suthchurch, C.I.P.M., iii, no.185; Robert, son of John de Rochford, C.I.P.M. vii, no.134. The others were Alice de Beaumond, Thomas de Burgo, Ralph Hemenhale, John de Overdale, Maurice le Brun and John Joce, together with Hugh de Ver and Thomas de Belhus, both of whose families certainly held lands in Essex.

(151) see Mitchell S.K., Taxation in Medieval England, pp.90-110; Willard, J.F. Parliamentary Taxation on Personal Property 1290-1334; Pasquet D., op.cit. pp.186-193; Harris G.L. King Parliament and Public Finance in Medieval England to 1369, (Oxford, 1965).

(152) Mitchell S.K., op.cit., p.110.

(153) Riess L., op.cit., p.8; Pasquet D., op.cit., p.187.

(154) these were Ralph de Arderne, collector in 1290, PRO, Exchequer LTR, E.368 no.62, m.34d, attended parliament in 1295 and 1302; Jolland de Duresme, collector in 1294, P.W., I. p.27, no.4, attended parliament in 1298 and thereafter; Hugh le Blount, collector in 1301, P.W.., I. p.107, no.50, did attend the 1301 parliament, amongst others., as did Henry Grapinel, Collector and representative in 1297, P.W., I.

(155) Willard J.F. op.cit., pp.33-39.

(156) P.W., I. p.107, no.50; p.94, no.18.

(157) 1295, P.W.,I. p.46, no.34; 1297, July, P.W.,I. p.53, no.8; 1297, October, P.W., I. p.64, no.43.

(158) P.W., I. p.105, nos. 45-6; C.C.R. 1301, p.499.

(159) Willard J.F., op.cit., pp.37-38.

(160) PRO Exchequer LTR, E.368, no.74.m.32

(161) P.W., II.ii, p.38, no.4.

(162) PRO Exchequer LTR, E.368, no.77.m.36-37.

(163) PRO, Exchequer., E.368, no.62.m34d.

(164) P.W., I. p.53.

(165) C.C.R., 1298, p.145.

(166) P.W., II.ii, p.14, no.33

(167) P.W., I. p.107, no 50; p.132, no.64.

(168) PRO, Wardrobe Books, E.101/364/13/m.55d; E.101/365/6/m.5 & 6.

(169) Chew H., Ecclesiastical Tenants in Chief, p.110.

(170) P.W., II.ii. p.433, no.9; Calendar of Chancery Rolls Various (Calendar of Scutage Rolls), p.140.

(171) P.W., II.ii. p.59, no.44.

(172) Rotuli Hundredorum ii. p.554; see also Round J.H., The King's Serjeants and Officers of State (London, 1911) pp.312-3.

(173) Wardrobe Books C.47/4/4/m.47d; C.47/4/4/m.54d; at the rate of 1 obol for each greyhound and 2d for the beagle.

(174) in 1290, Wardrobe Books C.47/4/4/m.58d.

(175) 1294, Wardrobe Books, E.36/202/m.34d; 1298, Wardrobe Books E.101/354/5/m.12d.

(176) Wardrobe Books British Museum Add.Ms. no. 7965.m.66d.

(177) Wardrobe Books E.101/354/5/m.21d.

(178) something like twenty three regular disbursements were made to him over this period, mainly for regular fees and allowance for robes. References as per PRO Wardrobe Books C.47/4/4 to E.101/369/11.

(179) Wardrobe Books C.47/4/3/m.22d, m.29d, and m.31d.

(180) born in 1286 C.I.P.M. v, no.273; British Museum, Add.Ms. no.35291.m.162. However, if the above mentioned Inquisition Post Mortem is correct he cannot have been much more than fifteen in 1299.

(181) Wardrobe Books, C.47/4/3/m.29; 1289, c.46/4/5/m.31d; 1289-90, E.101/357/15/m.16d; 1303, ibid m.17d; 1304, E.101/365/10/m.14; 1306-6, E.101/369/11/m.198; 1306, E.101/368/27/m.48d.

(182) C.I.P.M., ii, no.636; Calendar of Miscellaneous Inquisitions, I, no.1870.

(183) C.I.P.M. iii, no.366, no.505.

(184) Wardrobe Books C.47/4/3/m.28d; C.47/4/5/m.33d; E.101/354/5/m.8,9, m.12d.

(185) Wardrobe Books, E.36/202/m.29d.

(186) ibid., E.101/365/6/m.8.

(187) ibid., E.101/365/10/m.9d; C.F.R.., ii, p.29; St. John Brooks, 'The Blount Family', does not mention a Stephen Blount.

(188) Wardrobe Books, E.101/368/12/m.8; E.101/369/15/m.1d.

(189) ibid., E.101/352/12/m.7d.

(190) ibid., E.101/378/8/m.35

(191) ibid., E.101/363/18/m.17; E.101/357/15/m.18d; E.101/373/15/m.48.

(192) ibid., E.101/364/13/m.49d.