(1) Coss P. The Knight in Medieval England

(2) The source for the group as a whole is Volume I of Palgrave F Parliamentary Writs and Writs of Military Summons, (Record Commission London ,1827). This may be checked against House of Commons Parliamentary Papers, Returns of Members of Parliament, (London 1878), which offers no further additions.

(3) The references for this list may be found in Chapter VI Section II.

(4) Riess L. The History of English Electoral Law in the Middle Ages, trans. K. Wood-Leigh (Cambridge, 1940).

(5) these were; October 6th, 1297, and January 27th.1316. Riess op.cit. pp.8-9.

(6) Pasquet D. The Origins of the House of Common, (London, 1964)

(7)Hugh le Blount in 1301, P.W.I. p.107.no.90, Henry Grapinel 1297, P.W. I. p.64 no 43; Jollan de Dureseme P.W. I. p27.no

(8) Alan de Goldingham and Ralph de Coggeshall assigned to Group D. See below Chapter VII p257 for more detailed discussion.

(9) see also Chapter VII pp 247 - 258

(10) printed in Parliamentary Writs I. pp.410-420. Essex entries, pp.413-4; N. Denholm Young, 'The Song of Carlaverock and Rolls of Arms', P.B.A. xlvii (1961) pp 284-5. Other versions of the Parliamentary Roll of Arms are listed in A.R. Wagner, Aspilogia I. A Catalogue of English Medieval Rolls of Arms. (Oxford, 1950) pp 42-50

(11) M. Denholm Young, History and Heraldry. p. 2.

(12) PW.I. pp.273-4 no.4: see 4190 N. Denholm Young, Collected Papers , p.88, where the numbers are incorrect, and A.Z. Freeman's 'A moat Defensive. 1295', Speculum; xlii (1967) where some of the knights in question are also incorrectly described as not being tenants-in-chief.

(13) Also excluding Thomas de St Omer about whom virtually nothing has been discovered.

(14) Boxted was, however, dead by January 1303 and was succeeded by his son Peter, born around 1273. C.I.P.M., IV no.154, who does not appear in the P.R.A. This must throw some doubt on Denholm Young's dating of the P.R.A.

(15) He was almost certainly a younger son of Robert Fitz Rogers 1264-1310 baron of Whalton in Northumberland, I.J. Sanders, English Baronies (Oxford 1960) p.l50, C.F.R . II. p61. and was probably resident in Norfolk where he was sheriff in 1312 and 1316, C.F.R. II. pp.l25, 128, 149, 276. He was probably dead by 1316. C.F.R II. p.294.

(16)The entry under Coggeshall in the P.R.A. gives only the surname and probably refers to Ralph's son John. Ralph died in 1305. C.I.P.M. VI. p.288, but see above p.54. note 3.

(17). The Red Book of the Exchequer, Ed. H. Hall. (Rolls Series. London 1896) vol I. pp. 345-349

(18) ibid. pp. 349, 352, 351, 345, 346, 351.

(19) This data is best obtained from the original returns, since the compilation of the Calendars is somewhat erratic.

(20) The failings of I.P.M.s for baronial tenants in the fifteenth century were probably no less evident in the inquisitions taken for lesser men in the thirteenth. See Ross C.D. and Pugh T.B., 'Materials for the study of Baronial Incomes in the Fifteenth Century', Econ.H.R. 2nd ser, vi (1953-4) pp. 185-9.

(21) The Final Concords for Essex have been calendared in Feet of Fines for Essex, ed., Kirk R.E.G. (Colchester, 1899-1928)

(22) To avoid an excessive paraphernalia of footnotes, lists of names, estates and other references have been removed to Appendices A and B, unless otherwise stated.

(23) Hilton R., A Medieval Society. The West Midlands at the end of the thirteenth Century. (London 1967) pp.53-4; Reaney P.H., The Place Names of Essex (Cambridge 1935) hereafter Reaney.

(24) Darby H.C., The Domesday Geography of Eastern England (Cambridge,1952) p.212; Reaney op cit., see also Round J.H. 'The Origins of the Essex Parishes' in Family Origins and Other Studies.

(25) Each of these men was of baronial or sub baronial status, Sanders I.J. , English Baronies, pp 86, 150, 102, 56.

(26) See Cam H.M. , The Hundred and the Hundred Rolls , Merlin Edition. (London, 1963) p.266; #C.I.P.M. ii no.63.

(27) Darby H.C. , op.cit. pp.229, 223.

(28) ibid., pp.231-2

(29) In the North West; Ongar, Chelmsford, Lexden, Witham, Dunmow, Clavering, Hinckford, Uttlesford, Harlow. In the East and South East, Becontree, Thurstable, Chafford, Barstable, Dengie, Rochford, Tendring and Winstree.

(30) Darby H.C. , op.cit., pp 216, 217, 260, 238, 240, 229, 231.

(31) ibid., p.241.

(32) Baud & Gross (Group B), Barew and Burnham (C), Mare (D).

(33) Chew H. , The English Ecclesiastical Tenants in Chief and Knight Service (Oxford 1932) p.11.

(34) Brianzon (B), Barew, Barrington, Burnham, Morel, Fitzwarin (C), Merk R. (D), plus, Beauchamp and Blount (A) and Mare and Goldingham (D) holding land in other counties.

(35) Essex Lay Subsidy. 1/30th 22 Henry III. E.179/107/1

(36) ibid. 1/12th & 1/18th. 13 Ed.II. E.179. 107/10 & 11.

(37) Chelmsford from 1350 to 1170, Clavering from 480 to 378 and Dunmow from 1260 to 1224 references as above.

(38) Barstable from 870 to 1800; Tendring from 750 to 1710; Dengie from 900 to 1278, and Becontree from 360 to 1224; references as above.

(39) See Maps. Appendix J.

(40) Cam H.M. , Liberties and Communities p.237. Such estimates were, however the work of parsimonious financial officials anxious to economise on the travelling expenses allowed to Mps. Reasonable estimates of comfortable travelling time were probably more conservative; see also Salzman F.L. , 'The Legal Status of Markets', Cambridge Historical Journal ii (1928) p. 211

(41) References in Appendix A and B, Maps in Appendix J.

(42) The geographical distribution is represented on Map 6, Appendix J, where all estates are located by the parish in which they are found.

(43) Arderne, Dureseme, Fillol; five of the knights in this group held estates in other counties. See below p72

(44) see Appendix A, and below pp-100-104

(45) see Appendices A & B.

(46) for references see Appendix A

(47) In Group C, Gernon holding in Bakewell, Derbyshire, F.A.. I, p.250; C.I.P.M. vi. no 758; Tany R. Probably holding at Eastwick in Hertfordshire , Misc., I. no.706; Waterville, possibly at Chesham in Surrey. CPR 1254, p.304.In Group D. Haningfield, Heron and Mark R. Do not appear to have held any estates outside their home county.

(48) detailed references in Appendix A.

(49) These figures do not include the 25 estates of Ralph de Coggeshall which, when included, raise the average for Group D to 8-9 estates per knight.

(50) see below Cap. VII pp.231

(51) FF. ii. p.97.no. 294.

(52) FF. ii. p.113.no.876.